GPHR Exam Content

Knowledge of local laws affecting employment (including recruiting, hiring, reference checking and background checks) has been part of the GPHR Body of Knowledge since its inception. During the most recent practice analysis, respondents were asked to identify the countries/regions for which they have HR responsibility and those with the greatest response rates were Canada, China, India, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union. Questions regarding general knowledge of local employment laws will be limited to these six countries/regions beginning in 2009. During future practice analyses, this list will be updated.


The development of global HR strategies to support the organization’s short- and long-term business goals and corporate values.


01 Participate in the development of the organization’s global business strategy (including organizational structure).

02 Develop HR strategies to support the organization’s global strategic plans and the business requirements (for example, outsourcing, off-shoring, new product development, transfer of technology and human capital, talent management, shared services).

03 Develop an HR infrastructure that supports global business initiatives where HR serves as a subject matter expert and credible business partner.

04 Participate in the strategic decision- making processes and due diligence for business changes (for example, expansions, mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures, greenfield operations, divestitures).

05 Develop measurement systems to evaluate HR’s contribution to the achievement of the organization’s strategic goals.

06 Participate in the development and integration of the organization’s culture, core values, ethical standards, philosophy on corporate social responsibility, and employer brand.

07 Establish internal and external global relationships and alliances with stakeholders (for example, diversity councils, joint venture partners, employers’groups, unions, works councils, business leader forums).

08 Determine strategies and business needs for outsourcing and vendor selection (for example, benefits, payroll, relocation, global assignment management).

09 Participate in the development of global change management strategies (including global mindset).

10 Determine strategy for HRIS to meet organizational goals and objectives in a global environment.

11 Develop and implement Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programs consistent with corporate philosophy and goals, legal requirements and/or external influences.

Knowledge of:

0001 The organization’s vision, values, mission, business goals, objectives, plans and processes

0002 Strategic/business planning processes and their implementation, including SWOT and balanced scorecard analysis

0003 Strategies to align the global HR function as a strategic business partner

0004 Financial planning processes and budget development

0005 Business models and implications (for example, joint ventures, wholly owned subsidiaries, representative offices, outsourcing/off-shoring)

0006 Organizational structures (by geography, business unit, product line, and functional discipline) and their design and implementation

0007 Financial measures/tools for assessing the value of HR programs (for example, return on investment [ROI], cost/benefit analysis)

0008 The organization’s values and their fit with the culture and context of other countries

0009 Business ethics standards and practices at a global level, while maintaining local relevance

0010 Role and expectations of customers, suppliers, employees, communities, shareholders, boards of directors, owners, and other stakeholders

0011 HRIS architecture and technology to support global human resource activities

0012 Cross-border divestitures and mergers and acquisitions integration practices and procedures

0013 International site start-up practices and procedures

0014 The organization’s business philosophies, financial models and financial statements

0015 Due diligence processes appropriate to specific cultures

0016 Best practices and application of community relations, environmental initiatives and philanthropic activities

0017 Corporate social responsibility practices and policies


The development, implementation, and evaluation of global staffing strategies to support organizational objectives in a culturally and contextually appropriate manner. This includes utilization of the employer brand; job and cost analysis; and the recruitment, hiring, preparation, and global mobility of employees to meet business needs.


01 Ensure that global talent acquisition and mobility policies, practices, and programs comply with applicable laws and regulations. Examples: Employment Contract Act (China), Council Regulation 1612/68 on freedom of movement of workers within the Community (EU), Contract Labor Act (India).

02 Develop strategic approach for global talent acquisition and mobility to ensure alignment with business need requirements.

03 Utilize and promote the employer branding strategy to attract talent from global and local markets.

04 Identify, utilize, and evaluate sourcesof global talent (for example, personal networks, college recruiting, international job boards).

05 Develop a global staffing plan that supports business needs in collaboration with leadership and line management

06 Calculate cost estimates for global assignments and advise line management on budgetary impact.

07 Develop, implement, and evaluate pre-and post-hire polices and procedures (for example, selection criteria/tools, employment/secondment agreements, background checks, medical evaluation) that are culturally and contextually appropriate.

08 Create position descriptions that define job-specific responsibilities, knowledge, skills, and abilities.

09 Develop, implement, and evaluate orientation/induction processes that are culturally relevant and aligned with organizational strategy.

10 Provide consultation to potential global assignees and line management on terms and conditions of assignment, planning, and expectation-setting to enable a successful relocation/assignment.

11 Monitor staffing metrics (for example, cost-of-hire, quality of hire, retention, return on investment) to evaluate results against global staffing plan.

12 Comply with required immigration regulations (for example, visas, work permits).

13 Coordinate relocation and support services for international assignments (shipment, storage, home/host housing, property management, destination services, schooling and educational counseling, spouse/partner career assistance, etc.)

14 Establish and maintain ongoing communication practices with assignees, local management and home-country management.

Knowledge of:

0018 Applicable laws and regulations related to hiring and employment

0019 Strategies to promote employer of choice or employment branding initiatives

0020 Methods for developing, sourcing, and implementing a global workforce staffing plan

0021 Global and country-specific recruiting and hiring practices, methods and sources

0022 Job description development

0023 Culturally appropriate interviewingtechniques and selection systems

0024 Employment contract content requirements by country

0025 Deployment activities (for example, relocation, immigration)

0026 Corporate induction programs

0027 Staffing metrics (for example, headcount, cost-of-hire, days-to-fill, return on investment)

0028 Different types of assignments, policies, and practices (for example, short-term, long-term, sequential, commuting, and permanent assignees)

0029 Assessment and selection tools and models for international assignments

0030 International assignment management, tracking, and reporting

0031 Intercultural theory models and their application to the assignment process and success

0032 Critical success factors for international assignees (for example, family adjustment and support, communication)

0033 Global assignee orientation programs (for example, cross-cultural training, destination services, language training)

0034 Assignment assessment measures to evaluate assignee fit and impact on the business (for example, return on investment)

0035 Immigration issues related to global mobility (for example, visas, work permits)

0036 Techniques for fostering effective communications with global assignees, line management, and leadership.

0037 International assignment costs (cost of living allowances, premiums, housing, shipping)


The establishment and ongoing assessment of a global compensation strategy including remuneration, benefits, and perquisites programs aligned with the company’s business objectives.


01 Ensure that global compensation, benefits, and perquisite programs are appropriately funded, cost-and tax-effective and are compliant with applicable laws and regulations. Examples: Employee Provident Fund (India), Fair Labor Standards Act (US), Employment Act (UK).

02 Establish and communicate a global compensation and benefits strategy aligned to support the organization’s business requirements while sustaining employee engagement.

03 Design and/or negotiate compensation and benefits programs for business changes (for example, mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures).

04 Develop, implement, and assess job valuation systems aligned with global business strategy

05 Establish and maintain compensation, benefits, and perquisite programs for key executives in each country of operation, including base salary structures, short-and long-term incentive plans, supplemental benefits programs and tax-effective compensation arrangements.

06 Develop and implement compensation terms and conditions (for example, balance sheet calculations, allowances, end-of-assignment bonuses, salary increases).

07 Develop and implement global assignment benefit and perquisite programs (for example, health care, employee assistance programs, club memberships, company car).

08 Develop, implement, and assess programs to address income and social insurance tax obligations and their portability for global assignees.

09 Develop, implement, and evaluate programs, processes, and policies for the transition of global assignees to local employment status.

10 Establish and maintain compensation, benefits and perquisite programs for locally hired employees in each country of operation.

11 Manage and evaluate assignment-related payments, payroll processes, and activities.

Knowledge of:

0038 Applicable local compensation, benefits, and tax laws

0039 Assignment tax planning and tax compliance requirements and processes

0040 Expenses related to international relocation (for example, house-hunting, furniture rental, temporary accommodations, shipment of goods, cultural/language training, dependent education)

0041 Payroll requirements and assignment payment methods (for example, split payroll, home and host country payments)

0042 Localization concepts and processes (for example, tax implications, Social Security issues)

0043 Global assignee compensation packages

0044 Cost-of-living models and their impact for international assignments (for example, commodities and services allowances, efficient purchaser indices)

0045 Global and country-specific benefit programs (for example, retirement, Social Security, health care)

0046 Global and country-specific perquisite programs (for example, company car, club membership, housing, meal vouchers)

0047 Equity-based programs (including stock options, phantom stock, restricted shares and stock purchase, employee stock) and their global application and taxation ramifications for the employee and the company

0048 The impact of cross-border moves on long-and short-term incentive programs

0049 Portability of health and welfare programs (for example, pension, medical, disability insurance)

0050 Finance, payroll, and accounting practices related to country-specific compensation and benefits

0051 Procedures to collect and analyze data from global and country-specific compensation and benefits surveys

0052 Total remuneration and appropriate mix of types of compensation and benefits for different country-specific orsectoral markets

0053 Global executive compensation, benefits, and perquisites programs (such as annual management incentive, deferred compensation, long-term incentives, and tax-effective compensation methods)

0054 Financing of benefits programs, including insured programs, multinational insurance pooling and retirement funding vehicles

0055 Information sources on global and country-specific compensation, benefits, and tax trends

0056 Due diligence procedures on business changes (for example, mergers and acquisitions, joint ventures) with respect to compensation and benefits issues

0057 Job valuation tools (for example, point-factor systems, salary surveys, benchmarking, global applicability)

0058 Applicable double-tax treaties and totalization agreements

0059 Labor union and works council mandated compensation and benefits

0060 Work-life balance programs


The design, implementation, and enrichment of organizational structures, programs, and processes to effectively develop and engage a global workforce aligned with the organization’s business needs, culture, and values.


01 Ensure that human resource development programs are compliant with applicable laws and regulations. Examples: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (US), Employment Equity Act (Canada), Directive 76/207/EEC on the principle of equal treatment for men and women (EU).

02 Promote local and regional alignment of corporate vision,organizational culture, and core values.

03 Create and implement global diversity and inclusion programs that are aligned with the organization’s philosophy and meet legal requirements, while considering cultural perspectives.

04 Develop systems that support the implementation of global change management initiatives (includes promoting a global mindset).

05 Develop and deploy communication programs that are effective for a global workforce and other stakeholders.

06 Ensure that employees have the appropriate knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to meet current and future business requirements.

07 Implement and evaluate a process to gauge effectiveness of organizational development programs based on global HR metrics/measurements (for example, an “HRmanagement system”composed of employee satisfaction surveys, attrition, training results, benchmarking, score cards, other indicators).

08 Develop and implement processes, programs, and tools to support career development, leadership development, succession planning, and retention. throughout the organization, in an environment where global roles are not necessarily location-specific.

09 Develop and implement appropriate cultural and language training for employees with global responsibilities and their families, when necessary.

10 Develop programs and processes to support geographically dispersed and/or virtual teams (for example, shared leadership, task completion, project management).

11 Implement worldwide performance management processes thatsupport both global and local business objectives and are culturally appropriate.

12 Develop and implement programs to support the organization’s growth, restructuring, redeployment and downsizing initiatives globally, including exit management processes (for example, mergers & acquisitions, divestitures, reductions in force, joint ventures)

13 Develop repatriation programs for international assignees that support company strategy.

14 Develop and implement global competency models to support global and local business goals in culturally appropriate ways.

Knowledge of:

0061 Applicable laws and regulations related to human resource development activities

0062 Techniques to promote and align corporate vision, culture, and values with local and regional organizations

0063 Global organizational development programs and practices (including succession planning, career development, and leadership development)

0064 Needs assessment, for both the business and employees, within a global environment (involving different cultures and countries)

0065 Training programs and their application in global environments

0066 Global learning models and methodologies

0067 Performance appraisal, management, and coaching methods as they apply globally and locally (including expatriate global assignments)

0068 Techniques to measure organizational effectiveness in a global business environment (for example, satisfaction surveys, benchmarking, and productivity measurement tools such as scorecards or indicators)

0069 Retention strategies and principles and their application in different cultures and countries (including expatriate assignments)

0070 Redeployment, downsizing, and exit management strategies and principles and their application in different cultures and countries

0071 Career planning models for global roles

0072 Critical success factors for international assignees (for example, family adjustment and support, communication, career planning, mentoring)

0073 Repatriation best practices and processes

0074 Competency models and their global applicability

0075 Trends and practices for global employee engagement

0076 Interpersonal and organizational behavior concepts and applications in a global context (including the use of geographically dispersed teams)


The establishment of processes and practices that protect or enhance organizational value by managing risk
and addressing employee rights and needs on a global basis.


01 Ensure that activities related to employee and labor relations (up to & including termination of employment), safety, security, and privacy are compliant with applicable laws and regulations. Examples: TUPE -Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment –UK), Directive 2002/14/EC establishing a general framework for informing and consulting employees in theEC (EU), Trade Union Law (China).

02 Comply with extraterritorial laws to mitigate risk to the organization (for example, US Title VII, US Americans with Disabilities Act, US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, EU Data Privacy Directive & Safe Harbor Privacy Principles).

03 Ensure organizational compliance with globally recognized regulations to enable effective workforce relations and meet acceptable workplace standards (for example, OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, ILO conventions, Mercosur, NAFTA, WTO).

04 Monitor employment-related legal compliance and ethical conduct throughout the global supply chain (including third party vendors) to mitigate risk to the organization.

05 Develop audit procedures to assess HR internal controls, evaluate results and take corrective actions.

06 Establish and maintain employee records with appropriate regard for privacy regulations where applicable (for example, EU Data Privacy Directive, US HIPAA, Australian Federal Privacy Act).

07 Establish alternative dispute resolution/grievance processes in compliance with applicable laws and practices, where permitted.

08 Develop and implement programs to promote a positive work culture (for example, employee recognition, constructive discipline, non-monetary rewards, positive reinforcement.).

09 Coordinate collective-bargaining activities and contract administration with national and/or local unions as needed.

10 Confer with employee representative groups in compliance with statutory requirements (for example, works councils, unions, Joint Action committees).

11 Develop, implement, and communicate employment-related corporate policies (for example, ethics, code of conduct, anti-discrimination, harassment).

12 Coordinate global risk management, emergency response, and security practices (including intellectual property).

Knowledge of:

0077 Applicable laws affecting employee and labor relations (including termination of employment), workplace health, safety, security, and privacy

0078 Major laws that apply extraterritorially (for example, US Title VII, US Americans with Disabilities Act, US Foreign Corrupt Practices Act; EU Data Privacy Directive& Safe Harbor Privacy Principles)

0079 Globally-recognized regulations, conventions and agreements (for example, OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises, ILO Conventions, Mercosur, NAFTA, WTO)

0080 Employment-related legal compliance and ethical conduct of vendors, suppliers and contractors

0081 Internal controls, compliance, and audit processes

0082 Employee rights to privacy and recordkeeping requirements (for example, EU Data Privacy Directive & Safe Harbor Principles, US HIPAA, Australian Federal Privacy Act)

0083 Individual employment rights (for example, employees’ rights to bargain, grievance procedures, required recognition of unions)

0084 Appropriate global or local techniques for facilitating favorable employee relations (for example, small group facilitation, dispute resolution, grievance handling, employee recognition, constructive discipline, labor/management cooperative strategies and programs.

0085 Legal and customary roles of works councils and trade unions

0086 Location-specific collective bargaining processes, strategies, and concepts

0087 Global employment litigation

0088 Workplace security risks including physical threats and piracy of intellectual property and other company-proprietary information

0089 Local conditions relating to personal security (for example, kidnapping, terrorism, carjacking)

0090 Emergency response plans (for example, medical emergencies, pandemics, disaster recoveries, criminal prosecution, evacuation plans, facility safety plans)


0091 Basic business, global, political, and socioeconomic conditions, demographics, law and trade agreements and how they relate to business operations

0092 Globalization and its drivers, consequences, and trends

0093 Global management techniques, including planning, directing, controlling and coordinating resources

0094 Global project management techniques

0095 The global application of human resource ethics and professional standards

0096 Change management strategies, processes, and tools

0097 Global leadership concepts and applications

0098 Qualitative and quantitative methods and tools for analysis, interpretation and decision-making purposes and their use globally

0099 Intercultural theory and specific cultural behaviors

0100 Cross-cultural management techniques

0101 Strategies for managing global vendor/supplier relationships, selection processes and contract negotiations

0102 Communication processes and techniques and their worldwide applicability

0103 Effective use of interpreters, translators, and translations

0104 Techniques to promote creativity and innovation

0105 Principles and practices that foster diversity/inclusion

0106 The strategies of globalization versus localization of HR policies and programs

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